An executive summary is a summary of a research report or other type of document that summarizes important points to its readers. It must be a stand-alone document, with enough content to guarantee that the reader can fully comprehend the contents of the research study. An executive summary can be from 1-5 pages long, depending on the length of the research report, and may sum more than one document.
Importance of a Good Executive Summary
An executive summary is similar to an abstract because they both summarize the contents of a research study. However, there are several main differences.
Executive summaries are used largely when a research study has been generated for an organizational ally, funding firm, or other obvious groups that engaged in the research. In such cases, the research report and executive summary are written for policymakers outside of academic writing, while abstracts are drafted for the academic area. Professors assign the writing of executive summaries to students so they can practice writing and summarizing extensive research studies for organizational groups.
I. Writing an Executive Summary
You must read your entire research study wholly before beginning to write the executive summary. This will completely prepare you for how to organize and summarize the key points. The executive summary is a mini-paper of your paper, with a focus on recommendations. So, Keep in mind that this is not 300 words or less abstract.
You must choose the most important parts of the document for those who will read it. Students must include these points within the executive summary to provide an absolute and complete explanation of what the paper is trying to convey.
Closely review each section of the original document and recognize the main differences in each. Once you have a sound understanding of what information is offered in which section, write a few sentences for each section explaining the main ideas. The main sections of an executive summary will include the following:
Use the above points gathered to combine them into an executive summary that should be no longer than 10% of the original document. The student's purpose should be to provide a brief explanation of the entire document with recommendations that have arisen from your research.
Once you've completed your executive summary, wait for few hours and let it sit as it is before coming back to re-read it. Make sure that the summary will make sense as a separate document from the research study.
An abstract is usually a summary of one paragraph of 300 words or less, the major characters of the entire paper in a prescribed order that includes: 1) Purpose of the study and the research problems student has investigated; 2) the basic idea of the study; 3) major findings as a result of your analysis; and, 4) a summary of your interpretations and conclusions.
How important is a good abstract?
Your professor may ask you to introduce an abstract, or general summary of your work, with your research paper. The abstract enables you to embellish upon each major aspect of the paper and helps students decide whether they want to read the rest of the paper. So, a student must include enough key information to make the abstract useful to someone who may want to reference your work. How to get an idea that you have enough information in your abstract? A basic rule of thumb is to assume that you are another researcher doing alike study. Then you may ask yourself: if your abstract was the only part of the paper you have access to, would you be happy with the amount of information you incorporated there? Is it reflecting the whole story about your study? In case you conclude "no" then the abstract likely needs to be revised.
Types of Abstracts
Critical Abstract A critical abstract presents a judgment or comment about the study’s legality, authenticity, or completeness. The researcher assesses the paper and compares it with other works on the same subject. Critical abstracts are frequently 400-500 words in length.
Descriptive Abstract A descriptive abstract registers the type of information found in the work. It does not make any judgment about the work, it does not provide results or conclusions of the research. It may include the objective, processes, and scope of the research. It only describes the work being abstracted. this may be considered an outline of the work, rather than a summary. These abstracts are usually very short, 100 words or less.
Informative Abstract The bulk of abstracts are informative. They describe your work. A good informational abstract acts as a substitute for the work itself. The researcher displays and describes all the main arguments and the important results and evidence in the paper. An informative abstract includes the data that can be found in a descriptive abstract however it also includes the outcomes and judgments of the research. An informative abstract is always 300 words or less.
Highlight Abstract A highlight abstract is mainly written to draw the reader’s attention to the study. It includes incomplete and leading remarks to spark the reader’s interest. It is rarely used in academic writing.
The abstract SHOULD NOT have:
Long background information, References to other writing examples- current research shows that..." or "studies have indicated..." No incomplete sentences. Abbreviations, jargon, or terms. Image, illustration, figure, or table, or references to them.
An outline is a way to develop the framework of an assignment, what the contents and organization of your paper should be. A draft helps you foretell the overall structure and flow of an assignment.
An outline helps you understanding whether your ideas connect to each other or not, helps you identify the gaps if they exist, or if you have enough evidence to back each of your points.
A good outline is important because:
Your outline will determine where you're going and what the next step is. It will assist you to stay directed and concentrated throughout the writing process and helps ensure proper consistency [flow of ideas] in your final paper. But remember the outline should be viewed as only a guide.
A clear, detailed outline guarantees that you always have something to help and it will not let you drifting into subject areas irrelevant to the larger research problem.
The outline can be key to staying motivated. You can set collectively an outline when you're passionate about the project and everything is clicking; making an outline is never as awful as sitting down and beginning to reproduce a twenty-page paper without any understanding of where it is heading.
An outline helps you organize multiple ideas about a topic. A draft can help you classify which forms of analysis are most appropriate or assure the most robust findings.
There are a couple of general approaches you can take when writing an outline for your paper:
The topic outline consists of short maxims. This method is useful when you are bartering with a number of various issues that could be managed in a variety of different ways in your paper. Short maxims having more content than using simple sentences, create more beneficial content from which to build your paper.
The sentence outline is done in full sentences. This method is useful when your paper concentrates on complex issues in detail. The sentence outline is also beneficial because sentences themselves have many of the details in them and it allows you to incorporate those details in the sentences.
Steps to Make the Outline
Recognize the research problem. The research problem is the main point from which the rest of the outline swirls. Try to concise the point of your paper in one sentence or phrase. It also can be key to determining what the title of your writing should be.
Identify the main categories. What focal points will you investigate? The introduction reveals all of your main points, the rest of your paper can be used to develop those points.
Create the first category. In case your paper centers around a twisted term, a description of the term can be a good place to start. For a paper about a critical theory, giving a comprehensive background on the theory can be a good place, to begin with.
Create subcategories. Now you need to create points under it that provide support for the main point. The number of categories that you do depends on the volume of information that you are trying to meet.
Once you have acquired the basic outline of the assignment, prepare the contents to meet the standard format of a research paper.
Academic writing always refers to a distinct style of interpretation that students use to determine the limits of their disciplines and expertise. Features of academic writing incorporate a precise tone, use of the third-person perspective (usually), focus on the research problem under investigation, and accurate word choice.
The importance of Good Academic Writing and how it works is Assignment writing.
Academic Writing is all about being formal and logical. The Writing should always possess a logical flow, and it should always connect various parts to form a combined document. Each paragraph should be interlinked with each other so the reader can follow the argument.
You must present the arguments of others in a fair tone. Whenever opposing the argument that you disagree with, you must describe the argument accurately and without being biased. You must state the strengths of your arguments using neutral language.
A student should use clear use of language in Academic Writing. A well-structured paragraph and clear use of writing sentences help a reader to follow your thinking. As already mentioned your language should be formal, concise and it should mean what you want it to mean. Avoid the use of abbreviations and avoid vague expressions like they, we, people, and contractions, such as, "don't", "isn't", etc.
The most important and unavoidable part of academic writing is References. A student should always cite resources in the body of their paper and shall provide a list of references. Always acknowledge the source of any idea or research findings otherwise it will be considered Plagiarism.
Each argument you are making should present Evidence because academic writing always asks for your point of view on the research problem. Every argument should be logical. The quality of your evidence will determine the impact of your argument. Your challenge is to satisfy and convenience a reader through logically structure pieces of writing.
Keep in mind that describing a topic without research questions is not academic writing. So, Your writing should be a Thesis driven.
Last and the final step for best academic writing is to describe complex ideas clearly.
As soon as a student comes to know that he/she needs to choose a topic from the given list, they always tend to choose the easy one as it is easy for them to find the information easily. In the same way, a professor shall not include a complex topic that no research is available to review and students can not have a clue how to start it.
Instead of looking for the least resistant topic, students should choose a topic that excites them and they find interesting. You can also choose a controversial topic as you will always find a lot of research about them.
When your professor asks you to choose a topic yourself
So, Be wise, and choose such a topic you can relate to, excites you, and make you want to take a position. So, As you have chosen a topic now. You can begin your research about it.
Step 1. Now is the idea to turn your thoughts and idea into a topic that can be visualized as a research problem. You should not jump on writing after seeing the topic rather you just need to need to ask yourself, "what do I need to know?" You should treat this as an opportunity to learn something.
Step 2. This is the step to gain ideas and focus on your strategies. The below-mentioned point may help you if you lack good ideas.
Once you have developed your idea into a topic, you will be able to develop it into a research paper.
Many Students visit different countries for their Graduation, Master's Degree, or Ph.D. They have ambitions and plans. Why shouldn't they do it? They have given so much of their lives and sacrificed many things just to get there and fulfill their dreams.
But most of them are never aware of the upcoming challenges they will come across. A few of them are Cultural differences and Finances, which a student may overcome after spending some time with native students, friends and getting a part-time job to meet their daily expenses. However, Their priority remains to pursue their degree, Master's Degree, or Ph.D. That's the only reason they work part-time as well. So, They face the biggest challenges in this part itself. Below are the challenges a student face in their college:-
Difficulty Understanding College Lecture
The Standard of education is different all over the world and so the students are. International students come from different educational backgrounds and they have been in a different standard of education. So, They might not be prepared to attend the lectures in college, not having preconditioned background of it. So, the Result is always poor grades.
In these cases, you do not need to worry as it always takes time to get used to a new environment. Never miss your lecture as even if you get 5-10% of the total lecture that will benefit you.
Ask someone to share notes with you and take help in understanding the main point of the lecture. If that doesn't help, You may not need to stress yourself, reach out to Assignment Help Services, as their experts always have vast knowledge.
Academic Assignment Writing
This must be the most difficult challenge a student faces even native students face problems in academic writing. So, for International students, it is very tough to write a perfect assignment adhering to the writing standards shared by your teacher. Students always look for help from free samples to avoid this situation but this is not of much help as well.
Let us mention that writing a perfect assignment requires a lot of practice, which seems to be impossible considering part-time jobs. The easiest and convenient way to overcome this problem is to seek assignment help from a research writing service. This service not only provides you assignment helps and but also gives you access to free samples and previously done assignments. This will always help you understand the format of an assignment or dissertation.
It all starts after choosing a topic and which topic you prefer will decide the outcome. A topic is the main point of your writing, on which your research will focus. It always shows what we can not show and convey. Eventually, topics will help us discover new knowledge.
Never make choosing a topic a quick or easy task. You should be thinking about it right from the course and the one which excites you the most. There are always three ways you are asked to write about research.
First of all, students need to identify concept and terms which makes a topic statement. For Example; You are asked to write about the research problem" Is China becoming a threat to the United States Of America with the ability to develop new war machines?" The main concepts here are China, the USA, War Machines, and Superpower[hint: focus on identifying proper nouns, nouns or noun phrases, and action verbs in the assignment description].
Review literature related to the topic, how you will approach and find a way to analyze it.
Now is the time to look for the past, present, or future-based articles, books, or any literature which may have published. Get the background information from the material mentioned in your requirements by your teacher. You should not hesitate to review multidisciplinary library databases. These will help you refine your research and frame it as per the topic. This may require a lot of effort before you finalize the approach for writing on your topic.
NOTE: Always review the references indicated by the writers in footnotes, endnotes, or a bibliography that will help you locate additional research on the topic. You may also seek help from your librarian.
Step 3: Look for sources that can help you modify and strengthen your initial thoughts and ideas.
Now this is how you begin your analysis
You will always find sources that are relevant to the topic you have chosen however you disagree with the writer's point of view. So, one way you can use that source to describe the counter-argument, As you will provide proof from your review of the literature showcasing why it is unsatisfactory. You will be able to display how your views are appropriate based upon the research of the evidence.
The most important goal in writing a college research paper is to get to a research problem with a new idea, what position you are taking, and on what grounds you are taking that position. It is always encouraged to read, identify, modify and refine your thoughts in light of the new ideas proposed by someone else. However, you should always put references. Always place your issue and events in a historical context. This will always help do demonstrate similarity with the developments about your topic. It provides a comparison between historical events and contemporary issues that had a specific role in your research problem.
Note: Always note down every important thing. As these can be remembered for long and you will forget it.
After following all the steps, you may assume that you have done a commendable job and now you are ready to formulate an Outline of Your Paper that lays the foundation of your research.
In the world of writing, there are no rules – just various guidelines depending upon the subjects and different assignments, as students move from 1st year to 2nd year and so on. However, effective communication plays a very big role in your writing and this is what writing is all about, and educators can best teach their students effective communication skills as they have done the same themselves, especially in regards to their expectations of writing assignments. Professor has expectations from every student and professors require us to analyze our situations and differences: Some of us have not been in a focused writing class in years.
The assignment writing that freshmen are asked to undertake is notably specialized, and it’s new to many of the students. So, we often are not aware of what goes into a Chemistry paper, history paper, or research proposal, because we have never been asked to create the sort of writing. In High school and our first few college years, our main sources of readings are mainly textbooks, editorial essays, and sometimes popular fiction. At the junior level as well, we often lack a basic understanding of the system, discipline-specific texts university forces at us – These are the texts our teachers deal with each day. For them, the lectures of their systems are second nature; for us, it's almost a foreign language.
So, How do students know, when teachers offer clear expectations for their students’ writing? Alternatively, what does it seem, when these expectations aren’t described well? And, most important thing is, what can teachers do to support students more thoroughly demonstrate what is required of them?
Below are the points which can help you understand the requirements and the expectations of a professor
First, Things, where students get confused the most while writing an assignment, is NUMBER OF WORDS ASKED. Most of the time students are handed with well-documented requirements about word counts, however, students deviate it purposely and handed over fewer grades. However, Many times requirements are confusing with the word count, So at any point of time student sees this or fail to understand the bifurcation of the number of words depending upon a different part of the assignment. The student shall seek clarity from their professor before proceed writing.
Professors always show what they want to see in the rubric” (Papadopoulos). The students distinctly associated clear professor expectations with a set of rules, such as a detailed rubric, a word count, or a specified structure. However, In case that has not been given to you, you should ask for the same as your grades depend on the rubric, which needs to be followed. If a student does not have rubrics then this is like driving a car without a speed meter.
The students also deal with confusing and badly described expectations concerning writing assignments. Sometimes students have been said that "You should know what to do. You’re in university now. there is no requirement to explain what you need to do". Margaret said the following of one experience, Many times requirements were simply unrealistic: With these bad experiences, the students are often confused when given imprecise assignment descriptions, or asked to conclude things out for themselves.
Students are also given explicit instructions for making the assignment. Does that mean teachers need to offer students a step-by-step guide to express fair expectations? This is not at all necessary. Many professors bypass giving instruction guidebooks for each writing assignment; instead, they want to show their students independence and point clear of over-simplification. When professors are uncertain, it is their effort to prepare us for the real world rather than showing what you want to see.
However, you shall always ask Before you get the assignment, [your professors] must let you know what the goal of the assignment is – what he would like you to learn, how this assignment will help you in learning, and what will be the learnings, and how they can apply these skills in the future. A professor needs to make students aware of his or her approach at the starting: What he will be expecting from a particular draft?
Finally, You should always ask his/her thoughts on how they can make you better understand what is expected of them: Students will always fair understanding from having models or examples, rubrics with precise criteria aligned with the grading system for the class, and regulations for any elements of the writing assignment that may prove challenging or compelling for students.
In the end, teachers’ expectations are undeviatingly tied to the purpose of each assignment. Some assignments writing are meant to accomplish a set of requirements, and some are meant to take students on a course of learning. There is benefit in both approaches, as long as the method is specified early on. Stating the goal of an assignment is also a way of expressing expectations about that assignment: what skills students will get to learn, and what goals they will achieve? Most importantly, the professor-student relationship is like bread and Jam, and we need to do our part by constantly asking for clarification, guidance, or a little more feedback.
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